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The Spanish Inquisition

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Cecil Roth was a Jewish historian and teacher he earned his Ph.D from oxford in 1924. He would do Jewish studies at Oxford from 1939-1964. Cecil Roth has written many other books such as “The Dead Sea Scrolls (1965) and Jewish Art (1961)”. After he finished at oxford he became the editor of Encyclopedia Judaica in 1965 and did so until his death in Jerusalem 1970. (Www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0842494.html) (http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=navclient&ie=UTF-8&q=cecil+roth)
(http://search.yahoo.com/search?p=cecil+roth&fr=FP-tab-web-t&toggle=1&ei=UTF-8)

The Spanish inquisition takes place from the 1600’s to the late 19th century it was to covert, kill or band all Jews, protestants and who the Inquisitionist judged as a heretic. So that Spain could be purified.

The Inquisitions originally started in France and Italy when the Catholic Church tried to seek out all heretics. Inquisitionist would judge whoever they thought was a suspected Heretics. Heretics were people who opposed the Catholic Church these people were captured and tortured sometimes burned alive.
     The Inquisition was originally put into effect to rid the Albigensies out of Italy or convert them to the Christian ways by way of torture. After they successfully did this it was to ban the new Converts from the country. The reason for this was the Albigensies had developed their own religion called Manichaeanism where they had two gods one evil and one good. The pope wanted to rid the holy roman empire of these Albigensies, which started the Inquisition something that would be practiced for many years to come.
One of the Inquisitions was The Spanish Inquisition it lasted longer than the church thought it would and it was also the most cruelest and goriest. The people who were judged as heretics by the inquisitors were banned but sometimes they were maliciously tortured and persecuted. The Spanish Inquisition was one was the most cruel events that ever happened to innocent people in the name of religion. The Spanish inquisition at first targeted mainly Jews but later started to go after Protestants and all that opposed the church.
The Inquisitionist would torture Jews in admitting to crimes they did not commit which made it easier to persuade the king and queen to ban Jews from Spain. After the inquisition took effect in Spain they needed a way to look over how it was ran. An office called the Suprema was built in Madrid and became part of Spain’s government. When it was established the death toll of heretics, Jews and Marranos rose.

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With Spain having influence in America in the 16th century the inquisition went into affect having Inquisitional Courts in Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean’s. By this time most of the so-called “heretics” had been killed or thrown in jail.
By the mid 1800’s the Spanish Inquisition was coming to an end and “purifying the nation” had been accomplished. Since Spain had spent most of its time and effort keeping influences against the church such as books and school’s Spain was not up to date economically or educationally. The Spanish Inquisition ended in the early 10th century when King Juan Carlos told the Jews they could return to Spain and apologized for the years of torture and persecution.
There were a lot of things I didn’t like about this book one was how much effort the Supreme put into the Spanish inquisition. Keeping new books and idea’s to come into Spain hurt it coming into the new age being financially bankrupt and industrially damaged. Also without new idea’s being introduced to Spain it couldn’t grow.
As they put it in the book the Inquisition was put in effect to “purify” the country I really didn’t see the logic behind the Holy Roman Empire’s choice to kill so many innocent people. They tried to make a Utopia by causing chaos. I found this event in history was as pointless as the holocaust. I would understand persecuting all the “heretics” if they were attacking the Holy Roman Empire and being a threat but they weren’t and were being persecuted and attacked. Also tortured to confess to crimes these “heretics” committed and then being killed for it.
If everyone were so religious back then why would they have these festivals or Sermo Generalises just for a massacre? Didn’t they follow the Ten Commandments? Making the Suprema a branch in the government and the forming of the Inquisitional courts think dragged on the Inquisition longer than it should have. Also when they started seizing the Jews, Marranos and Protestants property that made it more political than religious. The book had good and bad parts but Cecil Roth did a good job of putting insight and the whole picture of what happened.



Spanish & English Superpowers of America

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Spanish & English Super Power's in America
Ultimately, their stronger unified cultural need to establish their dominance in another land is the most important reasons for the foothold established by the English and the Spanish in the New World. It is true that a plethora of different races, ethnic groups, nationalities, and cultures arrived on the North American soil prior to 1776, the year that America began its process of embarking upon its independence, of officially becoming the independent country of United States of America. This begs the question of why did the Spanish (and Spanish Americans) and later primarily the English (and English Americans) become the dominant ethnic groups in the New World, and not the other nations that established settlements, for instance, perchance, the Dutch?
This paper will argue that the predominant historical evidence, as discussed in The Ethnic Dimension in American History and Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History as well as American Mosaic and the text Out of Many suggests that the reason for this dominance was twofold. First of all, Spanish and the English dominated the seas and the land, militarily, in the way that other European nations such as the French did not. English settlers in particular had religious as well as economic reasons for developing a cultural and sociological grip as well as an economic support in the new nation. The fact that the British and Spanish nations were both more unified, had more mercantile capitol support, and were technically more advanced than their rivals, particularly on the seas, coupled with their greater need to establish settlements in the new land to ensure their dominance. It is tempting to view the English dominance purely as a product of military might, of course. But while this undoubtedly played a factor in the domination of the English and the Spanish, ultimately the reasons for British and Spanish were more cultural than purely military or technological, this essay will argue.
On a level of military technology the English in particular exercised military dominion, winning what came to be known as ‘Prince Phillips War,’ defeating Native American alliance against the New England colonists. The British also later dominated France and the still existing strong Native American tribes in what came to be known as ‘King William’s War’ in 1689. In May of 1702, England declared war on France after the death of the King of Spain, Charles II, to stop the union of France and Spain.

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This ‘War of the Spanish Succession’ was called ‘Queen Anne’s War’ in the colonies and the English and American colonists continued to battle the French, their Native American allies, and the Spanish for the next eleven years.
During this time as well their was a cluster in the riverbancks by using the Indian method which developed a limited exports. They aquiered these skill while they had been in Canada and Arcadia as hired laboreres. The French's new young generation took up farming and moved inland to Native American villages and intermarrying and extending their fur trade west and south into Mississippi Valley. By this time both Spain and France were unwilling to transport large number of subjects to the New World. Resulting in conflicts for both.
Militarily, in the New World, the English dominated the French and the Native Americans the French had allied with. In terms of their population, the Anglo colonists far exceeded the French. True, some French had fled feared persecution in their homeland. But the English domination of the land was so long lasting and entrenched in terms of the existing governmental structures, the French and eventually even the Spanish had no corresponding long-standing geographic and political existence from an organizational standpoint in the New World.
Their are many differences that we can see the Spanish and French had while staying in America. From the way they handled Native Americans to their religion. Once again the text book "Out of Many" by Fargher,Buhle, Czitrom and Armitage; shows us there are major diferences between them. The diferences were that Spanish is said to subjugate Native people and organized as labor force for mines and plantations. While French allied with autonomus Native tribes and traded with them. In religion they are different because Francisians people of New Mexico inssited on Native Americans to adopt European religion and culture practices. On the other hand its said that the French Jesuits of New Frances allowed them to adapt christianity to their own traditional way of life. The Pueblo accepted because they needed Spanish as theyre allies against Navajo and Apaches tribe this occured by 1690. The whole point is they learn how to live with eachother at least for some time proving it was possible.
Despite the French alliance with the Native American peoples of the region, the British triumphed because of their superior technology, superior numbers, but most importantly because of the greater unity of their alliance. The Native Americans were at war amongst themselves, and the French, Spanish, and Native American coalition quite tenuous. The English colonists were united by pre-existing and stronger governmental structures, and also by a more common culture than their enemies were. (Ethnic Dimension in American History 3rd Edited James S. Olson; 5-30; 47-52; 62-66; 80-86; 101-108; 139-143) In contrast to the French, the British’s settlement’s permanent start in the New World stretched back to 1620 when the Mayflower landed at Cape Cod in Massachusetts, with over a hundred colonists, when a permanent settlement was established in the New World (or the Old World of the Native Americans.) The Mayflower compact established a form of purely local government in which the colonists agreed to abide by majority rule and to cooperate for the general good of the colony. America did not begin as a country founded on religious toleration, true, but this early colony was formed on the basis of shared ideals. This makes it quite distinct from the contrasting efforts by earlier explorers of Dutch and French extraction to establish a colony. (American Mosaic 165-7) The extent of the duration of British settlement gave the settlers a greater knowledge of the terrain as well as a greater sense of unity as a developed nation. Technologically, these settlers were used to the hard work necessary to create a colony and stay alive in the New World. The Southern colonies as well had long established patterns of producing exportable goods, fueled, it must be sadly said, with the African-Americans imported to the New World as slaves.
It might be argued then why did not similarly persecuted people, such as the Scots and the Irish, establish dominance in the land, and why did the religiously unified, Catholic Spanish establish their dominance well? For instance, the French and Dutch did form communities throughout the developing colony. The French explorer LaSalle founded Louisiana in 1682. It is also true that many French citizens fled France after the Edict of Nantes, fearing religious persecution.
Thus is must be conceded that some of the reasons for British and Spanish are technical as well as theological. The British and Spanish fleets were both notable for their dominance of the seas during this period. This mobility gave them access to the world, and although the Spanish did not have a corresponding dissenting religious need to colonize the nation, the importance that the Spanish placed upon exploration and mercantile goods, in contrast to the Germans, for instance, made exploration a priority. The Spanish also had a different but still extant theological need to establish dominance in contrast to other nations-Spain wished to win land in the name of their holy, Catholic king and in the name of the Catholic Church that other nations were not similarly motivated by. Spain also had more mercantile capital and more far-reaching support in the form of the Vatican. (Gjerde Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History Chap.1; 3; 4;)
The reasons for the eventual British domination of the New World can thus be summed up in terms of their greater numbers, their greater military might, and their greater sense of internal unity. All of this was further solidified because of the greater need of the British religious dissenters had experienced. Their greater unity arose from both their long-standing political organization in the region and their greater need to maintain a homogenous culture. Like so many historical events, as a result of a greater cultural unity, developed out of a previous need for success amongst the population, the settlers were thus united, despite their differences, in their desire for religious expression and to create more permanent governmental structures. Although the French were on land, quite strong technically in military terms, they engaged in internal fighting with their Native American allies in a way that did not allow those allies to triumph. The French also did not dominate the seas, as did Spain.
But, even the Spanish with all of their triumph had difficulties such as in 1680, Pueblo Indians in Santa Fe rose up against the Spanish colonies and they killed "400 spaniards and 200 were held up"(Lecture Notes Ch3). This happened because the people in Pueblo were tired of seeing that the Spanis did not care of their customs and only trashed themnm. While they did force them to practice their religion. So, like any other group of people they got tired and it is said in the text book Out of Many that they "trashed the church and mutilated the Priests and theytransformed the governors chapel into a Kiva and his palace into a dwelling". But, Spanish are very clever that later on it lead to a new allingnment between them which both had to negotiate.
But even Spain’s force, though considerable did not ultimately generate the unique constellation of events and forces that allowed the British to emerge triumphant, temporarily, in the European war to dominate the New World. Spain had superior mercantile capital than other nations, as well as military might. But so did Britain, and coupled with Britain’s cultural capital, Britain’s dominance of the New World became complete.













Works Cited
Class Notes and Discussion and Book Used

Armitage, S, Buhle, M, Czitrom, D, Fargher, J. Out of Many ; A History of the American      People. New Jersey : Pearson Education, 2003.

Takaki, R. A Different Mirror; A history of Multicultural America. New York, 1993.

Books Used

Gierde, J. Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History. New York:
Houghton Mifflin College Edition, 1998.

The Ethnic Dimension in American History. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994

Rico, Barbara Roche and Mano, Sandra. American Mosaic. New York, 2000.



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